Many of you may want to know how many valence electrons does hydrogen has. So today in this following article I am going to discuss the valence electron of Hydrogen.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with the symbol H and the atomic number of Hydrogen is 1. It is the lightest element in the periodic table with a standard atomic weight of 1.008g. You will know that hydrogen is one of the most abundant chemical elements found in the universe. Basically, hydrogen atoms readily form a covalent bond which is mostly found in a molecular form on the earth and it exists on earth in the form of H20. Undoubtedly hydrogen is the most used chemical in the world of chemistry and is used everywhere in chemistry.
If you want to know the valence electrons and the valency of the hydrogen atom, then you are in the right place. But before you continue reading I want to let you know the differences between the valence electrons and valency.
The differences between Valence electrons and Valency
Valence electron means the total number of electrons are present in the outermost shell of an atom ( on the last shell). Suppose Oxygen has 8 electrons, so if you look at the electronic configuration of Oxygen then you will find 2,6 electrons. So the outermost shell of Oxygen contains 6 electrons, similarly as Hydrogen has a total number of 1 electron and the outermost shell will contain 1 electron as per following the electronic configuration. You will be surprised to know that the valence electron for a neutral atom will be always definite and it will not vary in any condition for an exact particular atom.
Valency is usually defined as the total number of electrons an atom can lose, gain or share during the time of bond formation to get a stable electronic configuration which means to complete the outermost shell. For the bonding circumstances, the valency of an atom is also variable in different kinds of compounds or other chemical reactions. Maximum time valency changes just because when there is a change in both oxidation and reduction states.
The Valence Electron of Hydrogen (H)
I am going to tell you four simple steps where you can easily find out the valence electron for the hydrogen atom, check the below steps.
Step 1: You need to find the atomic number of Hydrogen
You can find out the atomic number of hydrogen by using a periodic table. By taking the help of the periodic table, you can easily find out the atomic number of hydrogen which is 1. As the atomic number of Hydrogen is 1, so it has one proton and for neutral hydrogen, as you may know, that the number of protons will always equal the number of electrons so Hydrogen has only one electron in its nucleus.
Step 2: You need to write the electronic configuration of Hydrogen
As I have given an example of electronic configuration above, but now I am going to tell you briefly about electronic configuration. Basically, an electronic configuration is the arrangement of electrons on the orbitals. So already I told you as Hydrogen has only one electron in its shell, so you have to put only one electron in its orbital and it will go in the 1s orbital as S orbital has the ability to hold a maximum of two electrons which are closest to the nucleus.
Step 3: Determine the shell of valence
It is to be known that the valence shell of an atom is normally found from the maximum number of principle quantum numbers that are expressed in the of ‘n’ and in ‘1S1’, the highest value of n is 1 so the valence shell of H or Hydrogen will be 1S1.
Step 4: Try to find out valence electrons
Valence electrons are defined by the total number of electrons present in the valence shell of an atom. As you have already got know that there is only one electron present in the valence shell of hydrogen (1S1). Therefore hydrogen has only one valence electron.
Valency of Hydrogen
There are several ways to find out the valency of an atom and they mainly reflect the ability of an atom which can bond with another atom. Valence electrons show how easily an atom or a free radical can mix with other chemical types. During the time of bond formation, the valency of an atom is determined when the electrons are lost, gained, or shared. When the outermost shells have eight electrons then the atoms are said to be stable. If an atom contains one to four electrons in its outermost shell then that atom has positive valency but if the atom has four to eight then the valency will be calculated by subtracting from eight and valency will be zero. When the atom has four outermost electrons and possesses both positive and negative valency and atoms having eight electrons in the outermost shell then the valency will be zero (for example – noble gases).
Hydrogen is non-metal which reaches the stable state by losing one electron from its outermost shell. So the valency of hydrogen (H) is +1. You can take help from the periodic table to find out the valency of Hydrogen, as Hydrogen is located in group 1 of the periodic table with the alkali metals and their valency is always one.
Always remember one thing! Hydrogen is not an alkali metal, do not make the mistake of assuming hydrogen as an alkali metal, as you might be confused because it is situated in group 1 along with Alkali metals. Overall chemistry is a science with lots of exceptions.
The H+ valence electrons
When you see an ion with (+) signs this means the atom has lost an electron from its outermost shell. Similarly, Hydrogen -ion H+ also indicates that hydrogen loses one electron from the outermost shell and no electron is left on orbitals. Thus the electronic configuration of Hydrogen is 1S1 and it becomes H+ when it loses one electron, this means there is no electron left on the outermost shell. Just because of this H+ has zero valence electrons.
The valency of H+ is not zero just like other noble gases. Mainly when a Hydrogen atom loses one electron from the outermost shell, H+ is produced and this is what valency is. So the valency of H+ is +1 but not zero.